In cucumber, Przyborowski and Niemirowicz-Szczytt (1994) also
reported the number of embryos developing into haploid plants
was higher in the summer than in the spring . In summer the total number of embryos per fruit was higher than in the spring and amounted to 2.51,
in comparison with
0.69 , while the total number of embryos obtained from 100 seeds was 1.66 in the summer season as compared to 0.31 in spring. ?a?lar
and Abak (1999b, c) reported that a higher number of haploid cucumber plants was derived from the embryos that were cultured from May to
September than from the ones cultured in other periods of a year . What’s more, the highest number of cucumber haploid plants resulted in June and July. Similarly, parthenogenic embryos of cucumber was induced during the months of May through July , with no differences wtihin thsi period
(Claveria et al. 2005). In squash, the largest number of embryos per fruit was
obtained in September (17.3) and June (27.7) respectively (Kurtar et al. 2002 ). In the case of watermelon, pumpkin, and winter squash, a positive influence of the spring season
on the yield of haploid embryos was observed by Gürs?z et al. (1991), Kurtar et al. (2009), and Kurtar and Balkaya
Furthermore, plant vigour seems to play an important role in the induction of haploid embryos. Sauton (1988) and Cuny et al. (1993) found
that vigo ur and physiological state of parental plants was important for the formation of melon haploids Ko?mrlj et
al. (2014) found that germinability of cucumber pollen irradiated at room humidity was generally lower than that of pollen irradiated
at high humidity.
- ：FASEB Journal (IF: 5.043)
- ：Plant Molecular Biology Reporter (IF: 4.257)
- ：PLoS One (IF: 3.234)
of the SiO/Cu and SiO electrodes have a low coulombic efficiency for the first time it can be concluded for three reasons: First,
the Li+ consuming for the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI); Second, the reaction of Li+ with oxygen to form irreversible Li2O and
Li silicates; Third, volume expansion after lithiation make SiO particles’
overall structure fracture,
forming “islands” away from electronics or ionic channel therefore Li+ can’t to discharge normally in delithiation.
The curves of SiO/Cu electrode almost overlap, indicating a better cycling performance. Fig. 6 presents the cycle behavior and capacity
of SiO/Cu more intuitively. SiO/Cu maintains reversible capacity of 493mA/g after the 32nd cycle, with coulombic efficiency indicating of 98%, proving a higher
specific capacity and stable cycling performance. However, SiO shows drastic capacity fading and exhibits a lower reversible
capacity of 284mAh/g after the 32nd cycle. This effect may be attributed to two aspects: On the one hand, Cu can not only increase the electrical conductivity of material
, but also and maintain the electronics channel even if SiO particles fracture due to its malleability. forming excellent conductive
network, result in the decrease of electrochemical polarization and the increase in reversible capacity. On the other hand nano-Cu layer coated on SiO particles may improve the interface of SiO and electrolyte. It is worth mentioning That The capacity of SiO/Cu and SiO electrodes increase
distinctly in previous
several cycles, which may caused by volume effect of SiO during charge/discharge process. As mentioned above, the “islands” of SiO particles
away from electronics or ionic channel cause a lower capacity. With the charge and discharge process going on , the expansion of SiO accumulates
continually and the distance among SiO particles decrease, so the electronics or ionic channel of SiO particles recover,
leading to a crescent capacity.
- ：Bioresource Technology (IF: 4.494)
- ：Carbohydrate Polymers (IF: 4.074)
- ：RSC Advances (IF: 3.840)
All the rats were sacrificed at 3h, 6h, and 12h after the induction;
of pancreatitis (8 rats each time in each group).; Arterial
blood samples were drawn 3h, 6h, and 12h after induction of severe acute pancreatitis for determination of serum (Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ) ICAM-1 and liver function indexes
LDH(Llactic Dehydrogenase (LDH), ALT(Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and TBIL(Total bilirubin. The materials were immediately
centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 minutes at 5°C, Then supernatants were separated using sterile pipettes and were frozen at -80°C until analysi zed. Tissue specimens of pancreas, lung,
and liver were rinsed in saline buffer and each divided into two parts: One part was fixed in 10% formalin for histological examination,
the other was frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen for other detection.
Results To examine whether sodium taurocholate-induced
severe acute pancreatitis has succeed , we determinated serum amylase level in the
SAP group and their levels resulted in a dramatic al increase compared to the levels in sham group of different time points respectively.
Administration ofPGZ obviously
decreased the level of serum amylase (Fig. 1). The measurement of serum TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1β levels showed pancreatitis resulted add production of
pro-inflammatory cytokines, and they were reduced by treatment with PGZ . The level of TNF-a increased 3h after pancreatitis was induced and reached a peak at 6h (Fig. 1).
IL-6 was reduced at every time point in the PGZ group when compared to the SAP group (Fig. 1). Consistently, the level of IL-1β increased in the PGZ group s at each
point compared to the sham group and declined in the PGZ group at each point compared to the SAP group (Fig. 1). The SAP group generated a n obvious high level
of serum ICAM-1 from the sham group; additional treatment with PGZ strongly decreased the level of ICAM-1 to background levels.
- ：Carcinogenesis (IF: 5.334)
- ：PLoS One (IF: 3.234)
- ：BMC Genetics (IF: 2.397)
An innovative approach
for texturing pyramid structure on the
silicon surface is proposed via Cu-catalyzed chemical etching in the HF/FeCl3 system. The surface and cross-section morphology
of the formed pyramid structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope
. The results indicate that numerous silicon pyramid-like structures with hemlines of 0.1~3 μm and height of
0.1~2 μm are close together The top angle of the pyramid structure is 90 degrees. The effects of the etching time and the concentration of FeCl3 on the pyramid-like structures were systemically investigated. The
atom configuration model of silicon crystal faces demonstrates that the etching proceeds preferentially along <100> directions of silicon.
A formation mechanism of the pyramid-like structure was proposed. The results imply that synergetic effect of Cu nanoparticles and Fe(III)
could conveniently generatepyramid-like architecture on the surface of silicon in hydrofluoric acid solution.
As the reviewer has
mentioned, the reflectivity spectra of all samples used in the manuscript were measured by Ultraviolet visible spectrometer (over the wavelength range from 300 to 850nm) .
The reflectance s of all pyramid structures obtained by different time s and different concentrations of ferric
chloride are much lower (average reflectance s of 16%) clearly than the single polished silicon (average reflectance of 35%)
over the whole measured spectral range. But compared with the conventional pyramid arrays (average reflectance of 12%) obtained by alkaline
solutions or inverted pyramid arrays (average reflectance of 4.4%) obtained by HF and H2O2, the average reflectance s of our texturization are high.
- ：Materials & Design (IF: 3.501)
- ：Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing (IF: 3.071)
- ：Polymer International (IF: 2.409)
This paper presents our study of the effect of dust grains on the propagation
of electromagnetic (EM) waves through a uniform, unmagnetized, and weakly ionized dusty plasma.
We describe the dusty plasma by Drude model in whichcollisions between electrons and neutral molecules, ions, and dust grains in dusty plasma are
considered. The differentpropagation characteristics through normal plasmas and dusty plasmas are mainly
caused by the collisions between electrons and dust grains . T he
influence of plasma response, plasma degree of ionization, dust density, dust size and dust charge
on the reflection and the transmission of EM waves are discussed. Numerical results indicatethat the
effect of different plasma response and dust charge on the propagation of EM wave s can be neglected, but the degree of ionization has significant influence on
the propagation. T his study shows that only when the size or the density of dust grains is large enough, the dust grains in plasma cannot be ignored.
A simple model to describe a dusty plasma’s
interaction with EM waves has been presented in this paper The influence of dust grains in plasmas to the propagation of
EM wave s is discussed detailedly. Different plasma response
ha s limited effect on the propagation characteristics unless the size of dust grains is large
However, dust grains with large scale in dust plasmas do not appear regularly in real case. The
size and density of dust grains have the similar impact to the propagation coefficients: larger size or higher
density results in lower reflection coefficient in low- frequency waves (<20GHz) and lower transmission coefficient in high- frequency waves (>20GHz).
- ：Energy and Buildings (IF: 2.884)
- ：Industrial Crops and Products (IF: 2.837)
- ：Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing (IF: 1.762)
ABSTRACT In the coal mine, bolt loosening
of the cage
guide is effected by harsh environment and vibration of cage hoist,
bringing the work safety problems. Therefore, it is important to
detect multipoint bolts of guide structure. In this paper
, a system to monitor state of bolt in harsh environment
is proposed based on RFID technique. A proof-of-concept model is established
consisted of bolt gearing system, passive UHF RFID tags, reader
and monitoring software. A metal film made of tinfoil is fixed on the retaining plate and a RFID
tag is bonded to the big gear . The bolt to be detected
is fixed in the small gear’s center. The radio-frequency signal can’t be received by reader when tag is obscured by tinfoil completely
. When bolt loose d, the tag’s antenna is exposed because of
gears’ revolve. Radio-frequency signal which
includes corresponding bolt ’s information will be transmitted by RFID tag to the RFID
reader due to coil coupling, and the loose location is found and shown on
the surface of software. The test resu
lts revealed that bolt loosening can be effectively detected. Besides, a system (based on reed switch to monitor
multipoint bolts loosening is presented as a comparison to
evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the designed system in this paper.
results of the bolt monitoring system are summarized as follows :.
- ：IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems (IF: 8.746)
- ：Automatica (IF: 3.020)
- ：Mechatronics (IF: 1.726)
Langevin type piezoelectric tracked mobile system is proposed and investigated in this paper. This The tracked mobile system has no sliders or bearings, no bogie wheels, no lubricants, and is excited by a Langevin type
actuating mechanism, which means that its structure is reliable and thus fits
for the applications on robotic roves in planetary exploration s.
Based on the FEM simulation, the dimensions of the prototype actuating mechanism are determined.
A prototype of the tracked mobile system is fabricated, and the measured
vibration characteristics of the actuating mechanism confirm s the proposed operating principle and FEM calculation results.
To design the appearance sizes of the actuating mechanism , the commercial ANSYS software is adopted to calculate its vibration modes.
A variable cross-section beam and a annular part are jointed together as an integrated part that
is made of phosphor bronze. 65Mn is chosen as the material of the
vibration isolation block , because it possesses high strength and excellent vibration isolation effect.
The piezoelectric elements are PZT-8 (d33=250 pC/N, Kp=0.31, Qm=1500). The
specific material parameters are listed in Table I. Due to the geometry sizes of the PZTs
are firstly confirmed, which is 12mm×8mm×2mm but with a center through hole of the diameter
of 4mmthe width of the initial model of the actuating mechanism is a fixed constant.
- ：Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (IF: 1.903)
- ：International Journal of Mechanical Sciences (IF: 2.034)
- ：Mechanism and Machine Theory (IF: 1.660)
This paper mainly studies the effect of climate change on crop yield with analysis of
conditions of mid dle-season rice and winter wheat in China. There is vast
data available in agricultural production proces ses in the past decades
. This paper made a detailed study o f
the relationship between yield and climate factors in different stages with data of
crop yield of over 2000 Chinese administrative counties from 1980 to 2012 and the day-degree data from 2481 weather stations . First,
this paper analyzes in detail the tendenc y and the fluctuation ratio
of per unit yield and describes the differences in Chinese crops of different varieties and districts and the ir causes . In addition, with the data association analysis , the exact relationships are found between yield and climate elements in different growth stages. It
follows from the research that there are time and spatial distribution patterns for crop yield, the influence factors of each index
are obtained with the help of quantitative analysis. Th is research can effectively
be applied in agricultural monitoring and early warning , monitoring
of climate factors can be helpful to the forecast and early warning, and be fed back to production management .
Climate change is
among the most eye-catching environmental problems; typically, the
effect of the change on the crop production, water resources
and energy production globally for the past ten years. Agriculture is
among the fields where climate change matters a lot ; hence, research on the effects of the climate
change on the agricultural production means a lot. The development of the information
technology, especially the Web of things and the Data technology, has allowed the data collection and analysis of the agriculture data to be available, resulting in further
analysis of the agriculture information with great dimensionality and close correlations..
- ：Plant Cell Report (IF: 3.088)
- ：Postharvest Biology and Technology (IF: 2.223)
- ：Crop & Pasture Science (IF: 1.483)
However, N treatments did not affect
the carbon release rates in P. koraiensis and L. olgensis stands (Fig 4). In agreement with earlier studies on leaf-litter decomposition , distinct decomposition responses
to nitrogen additions in litter with low-versus high lignin content, Nitrogen additions often increase mass loss for
litter materials with low lignin content, while inhibit in g decay of high-lignin
litters (Knorr et al. 2005). In contrast to the response of low lignin litter, the higher the lignin content, the smaller the effect of nitrogen addition (Janssens et al. 2010).
The study that better litter quality in terms of lower C/N ratio under N treatments would lead to
more significant effect infor coniferous forest than broadleaves was confirmed by forest floor C turnover indices.
Research results revealed that (1) In general the influence ofsoil carbon cycle process under N fertilization was low nitrogen promotes,
but high nitrogen inhibit ion in this area. (2) N treatments formed
different effect on the soil respiration rate and its components in different forest stands , the major factors were soil
site condition and root biomass density in forest stand. (3) The more root biomass would lead to delay N inhibitory effect , and stimulate heterotrophic respiration rate under N treatments. (4) Leaf litter C release rate in broad-leaved forest
stands makes effect more vulnerable to N treatment than coniferous forest stands
, root litter C release rate in coniferous forest stands had higher N tolerances.
- ：Industrial Crops and Products (IF: 2.837)
- ：Urban Forestry & Urban Greening (IF: 2.109)
- ：Holzforschung (IF: 1.565)
uses the Tobit model to analyze how the scale and agglomeration of pig-breeding affects the breeding
and breeders behavior affect
pollution-treatment rate. Main conclusions are as follows. Based on the conclusions above, we can arrive at some policy suggestions:
First of all, in view of different scale of breeders, some government departments should take the management approach to
differentiate and divide types of breeders’ pollution into point source pollution and non-point
source pollution. Thus type of pollution of pig-breeding scale
more than 500 pigs should be considered as point source pollution, with regulatory levels similar to industrial pollution.
It isn divided
different pollution types according to the actual breeding model of pig-breeding scale which is below 500: one hand, if breeding pollution intensity is serious still, it will be
affirmed for point source pollution. On other hand, the small scale of breeders’ pollution can be affirmed for non-point source pollution,
at the same time the scale of breeding is determined by breeders’ arable land acreage to
ensure the most breeding feces return to fields. However, the government
cannot force breeders give up breeding pig through
dismantling their piggery. Secondly, the government should take measures to develop new industries of low pollution (such as
vegetables , fruits, tea, mulberry planting, fish pond breeding and others) consume
the feces of pig-breeding , making local employment diversified. . Also
, we suggest
the guidance and encouragement of pig breeders to get out of pig-breeding industry in the laws and regulations ban area like the water
conservation distric , nature reserve and so on, and the area of
breeding scale overloading ecological carrying capacity.
- ：Global and Planetary Change (IF: 2.766)
- ：Geomorphology (IF: 2.785)
- ：Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (IF: 2.587)
Abstract Objective This study investigates the effect of psychological nursing intervention on the patient anxiety regarding MRI scan procedures. Methods: 240 patients preparing to undergo MRI examination were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, which were administered either under individualized psychological nursing intervention or general nursing intervention. Patient responses were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI).
Thermoplastic polyurethane/octadecylamine-functionalized graphene (TPU/GO-ODA) composites were prepared with octadecylamine (ODA)-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-ODA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via solution casting and compression molding. The thermal stability and electrical conductivity of GO-ODA were examined and the effects of GO-ODA on electrical conductivity, thermal stability, crystallization, melting behavior, and resistivity-strain sensitivity of the composites were investigated.
The controlled-loading-blasting toe-shooting method (CLBTS-Method) is originally developed in China at the beginning of this century, and mainly used to build nearshore groynes located in deep silt layer. As its feature, this kind of groyne has a big buried depth and a complex cross-section. Although more than 100 km groynes have been built by the CLBTS-Method, the proper methods for analyzing the slope stability and predicting post-construction settlement of such kind of groyne are not found at present.
- ：Plant Molecular Biology Reporter (IF: 4.257)
- ：Industrial Crops and Products (IF: 2.837)
- ：Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites (IF: 1.503)
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the analysis of radiative transfer in multidimensional absorbing, emitting, and scattering
media with collimated irradiation. By collimated irradiation we mean external radiation that penetrates from the outside into a participating medium
(as opposed to emission from a bounding surface), with all light waves being parallel to one another (or approximately so).
Unfortunately, consideration of spectral variations of radiation properties tends to considerably increase the diculty of an already extremely
dicult problem, or at least make their numerical solution many times more computer-time intensive.
All solution methods discussed thus far, whether exact or approximate, are poorly suited for the consideration of nongray properties.
In our analyses of radiative transfer in participating media we have, up to this point, always assumed that there was no interaction with
other modes of heat transfer, i.e., we have limited ourselves to cases of radiative equilibrium and cases of specified temperature fields.